Minggu, 06 Desember 2015

History Curriculum Development in Indonesia

History curriculum in Indonesia is often changed every turn of the Minister of Education, so that the quality of education in Indonesia has yet to meet the quality standards are clear and steady. In the course of history since 1945, the national curriculum has changed, namely in 1947, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004 and 2006. The changes are a logical consequence of the change of political system, socio-cultural, economy, and science and technology in the community of nation and state. Therefore, the curriculum as a set of educational plan needs to be developed dynamically in accordance with the demands and changes in society. All national curriculum was designed based on the same foundation, namely Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, the difference in the principal emphasis of educational goals and approaches to make it happen.

1. Lesson Plans 1947

Initial curriculum was formed in 1947, named Lesson Plan 1947. This curriculum at that time to continue the curriculum that has been used by the Dutch because at that time still in the process of the struggle for independence. Utam that characterize this curriculum is more emphasis on the formation of human character and sovereign nation lain.Kurikulum parallel to the first born at the time of independence used the term leer plan. In Dutch, it means a lesson plan, far more popular than curriculum (in English). Changes in the lattice is more political education: from a Dutch educational orientation to the national interest. The principle set Pancasila education.

The new lesson plan implemented in 1947 schools in 1950. A number of the call history curriculum development curriculum beginning of 1950. The form contains two main points: the list of subjects and teaching hours, plus outlines of teaching. Lesson Plan in 1947 reducing the education of mind. Preferred character education, awareness of state and society, the subject matter associated with daily events, attention to the arts and physical education. After learning plans in 1947, in 1952 Indonesia experienced improvements curriculum. By renamed the Lesson Plan Unraveling 1952.Yang was the hallmark of this curriculum is that every lesson should pay attention to the content associated with everyday life.

2. The Lesson Plan Unraveling 1952

This curriculum is more detailing each subject called Lesson Plan Unraveling 1952. "Syllabus subject area clear. a teacher teaching one subject, "said Djauzak Ahmad, Director of the Basic Education Ministry of National Education 1991 to 1995 period. When it is, at the age of 16 years Djauzak is an elementary school teacher Tambelan and Tanjung Pinang, Riau.

At the end of the era of President Sukarno, appears Curriculum Education Plan in 1964 or 1964. The focus is on the development of creativity, sense, initiative, work, and moral (Pancawardhana). Subjects were classified into five groups of subjects: moral, intelligence, emotional / artistic craft (skill), and physical. Basic education is more emphasis on knowledge and functional activity prak tis.Usai 1952, ahead of the government's 1964 re-enhance the educational curriculum system in Indonesia. This time it was named the Education Plan 1964. What is characteristic of this learning curriculum focused on pancawardhana program that moral development, intelligence, emotional, and physical kerigelan.

3. Curriculum 1968

After 1952, the eve of 1964, the government re-enhance the curriculum system in Indonesia. This time named Education Plan 1964. Principles of curriculum thought in 1964 that is characteristic of this curriculum is: that the government has got the people's desire for academic knowledge to equip the elementary level, so that the learning program centered on Pancawardhana (Hamalik, 2004), namely moral development, intelligence, emotional / artistic, craft, and physical.

Curriculum 1968 is the renewal of the curriculum in 1964, which does change the structure of the curriculum of Pancawardhana be coaching spirit of Pancasila, the basic knowledge and specific skills. Curriculum 1968 is the embodiment of change of orientation on the implementation of 1945 a genuine and consistent.

In terms of educational goals, curriculum 1968 proposes that education is emphasized in an attempt to establish a true human Pancasila, strong, and healthy body, enhance intelligence and physical skills, morals, manners, and religious beliefs. Educational content directed at enhancing the activities of intelligence and skill, as well as develop physically healthy and strong.

Curriculum birth in 1968 was political: to replace the Education Plan 1964 which was imaged as a product of the Old Order. The goal is the formation of a true human Pancasila. 1968 curriculum emphasizes organizational approaches the subject matter: group coaching Pancasila, basic knowledge, and specialized skills. Lesson number 9.

Djauzak call Curriculum 1968 as rounded curriculum. "Just load the subjects of points," he said. The charge is theoretical subject matter, do not associate with the factual issues in the field. The emphasis on any appropriate material given to students at every level of education.

4. Curriculum 1975

Curriculum 1975 as a replacement for 1968 curriculum emphasizing the goal, the 1975 curriculum emphasizing the goal, making education more efficient and effective. "The background is the effect of the concept in the field of the management, the MBO (management by objectives) are well-known at the time," said Drs. Mudjito, Ak, MSi, Director of kindergarten and elementary mone.

Methods, materials, and teaching purposes specified in Procedures Instructional System Development (ITS). Age is known the term "learning unit", ie each unit lesson plan topics. Each unit is detailed lesson again: general instructions, specific instructional objectives (ICT), the subject matter, instrument lessons, learning activities, and evaluation. 1975 curriculum was heavily criticized. Teachers busy writing the details of what will be accomplished each learning activity.

5. Curriculum 1984

Curriculum 1984 carries the process skills approach. Although the approach prioritizing process, but the goal remains an important factor. The curriculum is also often called "Curriculum 1975 Enhanced". The position of the students placed as a subject of study. Of observing something, grouping, to discuss, to report. This model is called the Student Active Learning Method (CBSA) or Student Active Leaming (SAL).

A key figure behind the birth of Curriculum 1984 is Professor Dr. Conny R. Semiawan, Head of the National Education Ministry Curriculum 1980-1986 period were also rector IKIP Jakarta - now, Jakarta State University - the period 1984-1992. CBSA chic concept theoretically and better results in schools which have been tested, experienced many deviations and reduction when applied nationally. Unfortunately, many schools are less able to interpret CBSA. That look was a rowdy atmosphere in the classroom because students discuss, here and there is no patch images, and striking teachers no longer teach lecture models. CBSA's refusal to appear.

6. Curriculum 1994 and Curriculum Supplements 1999

1994 curriculum rolling over on a combination of the previous curricula. "His soul wants to combine Curriculum Curriculum 1975 and 1984, the process approach," said Mudjito explained.

Unfortunately, a mix of objectives and processes have not been successful. Scattered criticism, because the burden is too heavy assessed student learning. From the national to the local charge. Material local content tailored to the needs of each region, for example the local language arts, crafts area, and others. Various public interest groups also urged that certain issues into the curriculum. As a result, transformed into a super padat.Kejatuhan curriculum Soeharto regime in 1998, followed by the presence of a supplement curriculum changes 1999.Tapi more on adding some material. 1994 curriculum made as curriculum improvement in 1984 and implemented in accordance with law no. 2 of 1989 on National Education System. This resulted in lesson time sharing system, ie by changing from a semester system to the quarter system. With a quarter of the distribution system in one year to three phases is expected to provide opportunities for students to be able to receive the subject matter quite a lot.

There are characteristics that stand out from the implementation of the curriculum in 1994, including the following:

ü The division of the stages of learning in the school system quarterly.

ü Learning in schools emphasize the subject matter is quite dense (oriented to the subject matter / content).

ü populist 1994 curriculum, which is imposing a curriculum to all students throughout Indonesia. This curriculum is the core curriculum so that specific areas can develop their own teaching adapted to the environment and the needs of the surrounding community.

ü In the implementation of activities, teachers should select and use strategies that actively involve students in learning, both mentally, physically, and socially. In activating student teachers can give shape to answer questions that lead convergent, divergent (open, it is possible more than one answer) and investigations.

ü In teaching a subject should be tailored to the peculiarities of the concept / subject and the development of students' thinking, so hopefully there will be harmony between teaching that emphasizes on understanding the concepts and teachings that emphasize problem-solving skills and problem solving.

ü Teaching from the concrete to the abstract ha, from the easy to the difficult and from the simple to the complex.

ü The repetition-repetition of material that are considered difficult to be done to strengthening understanding.

During the implementation of the curriculum in 1994 appeared a few problems, mainly as a result of the tendency to approach the mastery of the material (content oriented), including the following:

û The burden of student learning is too heavy because the number of subjects and the number of materials / substances each subject.

û The subject matter was considered too difficult because it is less relevant to students' level of development thinking, and less meaningful because it is less associated with daily life applications.

The above problems during the implementation of the curriculum of 1994. This prompted policy makers to enhance the curriculum. One of the efforts to improve the implementation of curriculum supplements, 1994. Completion is done keeping in mind the principles of curriculum improvement, namely:

    Completion of the curriculum is continuously in an effort to adjust the curriculum to the development of science and technology, and the demands of society.
    Completion of the curriculum is done to get the proper proportion between the objectives to be achieved with the burden of learning, potential students, and the state of the environment and supporting facilities.
    Completion of the curriculum is done to obtain the truth substance of the subject matter and the conformity with the level of students' progress.
    Completion of the curriculum take brbagai related aspects, such as the purpose of learning materials, evaluation and infrastructure including textbooks.
    Completion of the curriculum is not difficult for the teachers in implementing it and still be able to use textbooks and other educational infrastructure available in schools.

Completion of the 1994 curriculum in primary and secondary education be implemented in stages, ie the stage of completion of short-term and long-term improvement.

Implementation of schooling refers to a set curriculum. One form invovasi developed by the government to improve the quality of education is to innovate in the field of curriculum. 1994 curriculum revised in response to structural changes in the government from centralized to disentralistik as a logical consequence of the implementation of Law No. 22 and 25 on regional autonomy.

In this era curriculum developed named Competency Based Curriculum (CBC). CBC is a set of plans and regulations on competences and learning outcomes to be achieved by students, assessment, teaching and learning activities, and the empowerment of educational resources in the development of school curriculum (MONE, 2002). This curriculum focuses on developing the ability to do (competence) tasks with a certain performasi standard, so the results can be felt by learners, such as mastery of specific competencies serangkat. CBC is directed to develop the knowledge, understanding, skills, values, attitudes and interests of learners, in order to do something in the form of finesse, accuracy and success with full responsibility.

The characteristics of the CBC according to Ministry of Education (2002) is as follows:

v Emphasis on student competency achievement both individually maupu classical.

v oriented learning outcomes (learning outcomes) and diversity.

v Submission in learning approaches and methods varied.

v Source learn not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational elements.

v Assessment emphasizes the learning process and results in the effort to control or achievement of a competency.

7. Curriculum 2004

Cool language Competency Based Curriculum (CBC). Each lesson is broken down based on whether the competencies that must be achieved by students. Unfortunately, confusion arises when associated with measuring devices student competence, namely the exam. School and national final exams still in the form of multiple choice questions. When the target competencies to be achieved, evaluation of more practice or a matter of description that is able to measure how much students' understanding and competence.

Although only tested, yet in some schools the cities in Java, and major cities outside Java has implemented CBC. The results are not satisfactory. The teachers did not know exactly what exactly the desired competency curriculum makers.

The curriculum is regarded as the improvement of the CBC named Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC). SBC is a form of implementation of Law No. 20 of 2003 on the national education system that translated into a number of regulations, among others, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 on national education standards. This Government Regulation provides guidance on the need to be prepared and implemented eight national education standards, namely: (1) content standards, (2) a standard process, (3) competency standards, (4) the standard of teachers and education personnel, (5) standard means and infrastructure, (6) management standards, standards of financing, and (7) the assessment standards of education.

Curriculum is understood as a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose, content, and teaching materials and methods used as guidelines for the organization of learning activities to achieve specific educational objectives, then by the issuance of Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005, the government has led education actors to implement the curriculum in the form educational unit level curriculum, which is the operational curriculum developed by and implemented in each educational unit.

Substantially, enforcement (read: naming) Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) is to implement the existing regulations, namely PP No. 19/2005. However, the essence of the content and direction of development is still characterized by the achievement pembelajarantetap packages of competence (and not the complete absence of a subject matter), namely:

ü Emphasis on student competency achievement both individually and classical.

ü oriented learning outcomes (learning outcomes) and diversity.

ü Submission in learning approaches and methods varied.

ü The source of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational elements.

ü Assessment emphasizes the learning process and results in the effort to control or achievement of a competency.

There is a fundamental difference compared with the CBC in 2004 by the CBC in 2006 (version SBC), that the school was given full authority to plan education with reference to the standards that are set, ranging from purpose, vision, mission, structure and curriculum, study load , calendars education to the development of syllabus.

8. SBC 2006

Early 2006, the CBC test is stopped. Came the Education Unit Level Curriculum. Lessons SBC is still stagnating. Review in terms of content and process of achievement of learning competencies by students to the technical evaluation is not much difference with Curriculum 2004. The most notable difference is the more teachers are given the freedom to plan the learning according to the environment and the condition of the students as well as the condition of the school is located. This is due to basic karangka (KD), competency standards (SKL), standards and basic competencies (SKKD) each subject for each educational unit has been established by the Ministry of National Education. So floating learning device, such as syllabus and assessment system under the authority of the educational unit (school) under the coordination and supervision of Regency / City Government. (TIAR)

Recent curriculum is the curriculum SBC 2006 which is an outgrowth of the 2004 curriculum CBC. Curriculum 2006, which is used at present is a curriculum that gives autonomy to schools for education whose top duty will be borne by each pengampu subjects namely teachers. So a teacher here in Okvina (2009) actually moved into the demanding professional human kereatifitasan a teacher. Curriculum we use today are still many shortcomings in addition to the existing advantages. The drawback is none other than (1) the lack of human resource potential in the SBC lays lin said that the quality of a teacher, because the teacher is required to SBC lebihh creative in running education. (2) the lack of facilities and infrastructure dimillki by the school.
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